 # History of Computers | Computer Fundamental Notes

History of computers that means in which time period computing machine are developed.

## ABACUS:

• ABACUS was invented by Chinese People in 2500 – 3000 BC.
• This is the first calculating machine made up of wooden frame with beads or balls sliding on wire.
• It consists of bars in horizontal positions on which sets of beads are inserted.

## Slide Rule:

• Slide Rule was invented by William Oughtred in 1622.
• First analog device that works on the principle of logarithms.
• It used for Multiplication, Division, Roots, Trigonometry, Logarithm, Exponentiation etc.

## Napier’s Bone:

• Napier’s Bone was Developed by English Mathematician John Napier in 1617 AD.
• Used for Multiplication.
• Also used for dividing and taking square root.

## Pascal’s Calculator:

• Pascal’s Calculator was developed by Blaise Pascal in 1642.
• It is a Mechanical Calculator capable for addition and subtraction.
• In this machine, numbers were entered by dialing a series of numbered wheels each wheel having numbers from 0 to 9.
• It could perform addition and subtraction up to 8 digits.

## Difference Machine:

• Difference Machine was developed by Charles Babbage (called Fathers of computer) in 1821-22.
• It able to perform complex mathematical calculation with 31 digits of precision.
• Used to solve polynomial equations.

## Analytical Engine:

• Analytical Engine was developed by Charles Babbage in 1837.
• General programmable machine.
• Able to Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division through the use of stored program.

And here we listed others important inventions:

• Atanasoff Berry Computer (ABC) in 1942: First electronic digital computer
• Hardvard Mark-I in 1944: First automatic electromechanical computer
• ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) in 1946: First general purpose electronic computer.
• EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) : First Store program computer.
• EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer): First practical stored program electronic computer.
• UNIVAC-I (Universal Automatic Computer): First general purpose electronic digital Computer. it is also called the first commercial computer.

Computer Definition, Features, Capabilities & Limitations and Application Are of Computer