Computer System, Computer Fundamental Notes

Computer System | Computer Fundamental Notes

Computer Fundamental Notes

Welcome to Computer Fundamental Notes Portion, in this section we are focused on Overview of Computer System.

In Computer System section we cover following topic:

What is computer system?
Data and Data Processing
Computer Hardware : Input Unit, Output Unit, Storage Unit, Processing Unit and other.
Software: type of software, programing language. firmware, cache memory etc.

What is Computer System?

A Computer System defined as a combination of all component of computer (such as hardware and software) to performed some operation as per computer program instruction.

In Computer System there are mainly four parts these are mention below:

  1. Hardware
  2. Software
  3. Data
  4. Users

In hardware part there many component such as (Input Device, Output Device, Processing Device, Storage Device and many more others Components are there).


All the physical parts of computer which can be touched, seen and felt are known as hardware. Hardware is constructed using physical materials or components. Computer is hardware, which operates under the control of software. If computer hardware are damaged, it is replaced with new one.

Input Device:

Input Device are those device which we are used to give instruction to computer and feed data for processing to find out desire results. For example: Keyboard, Mouse, Joystick, Scanner, Microphone, etc.

Processing Device:

Processing Unit are those unit which can process the data and produce result or information known as processing units. Example: CPU (Central Processing Unit) and its other components.

Output Device:

Output Device are those device which is used to see result/ information which is produce by processing units. example of output device are: Printer, Speaker, Monitor, Plotter, Projector etc.

Storage Device:

Storage units stores the data, instruction, intermediate results and output, temporarily, during the processing of data this type of storage unit/ memory is also called the main memory or primary memory of the computer. Example of main memory are: RAM, ROM

The input data, instructions and output are stored permanently in the secondary storage device like disk or tape, CD/DVD etc. The stored data can be retrieved later, whenever needed. Example of secondary storage device are; Hard Disk, CD/ DVD, Pen Drive, Tape etc.


Software is a set of instructions that tells the computer about the tasks to be performed and how these tasks are to be performed is known as computer software.

A set of instructions given to computer to perform a certain task is known as a program while a set of programs is known as software.

Type of software:

  • System software
  • Application Software
  • Utility Software

System Software:

The software needed to load or operate computer is known as system software (Operating System). It work as a bridge between computer user and computer hardware. Example; DOS, Windows 98, Windows XP, Windows Vista etc.

On the basis of Interface there are two ‘2’ type:

  • GUI (Graphical User Interface): Windows with graphic and symbols
  • CUI (Command Line Interface): It work with commands.

On the basis of Users:

  • Single User : Windows, DOS
  • Multiuser: UNIX, LINUX

On the basis of Operation:

  • Single Task: DOS
  • Multitask : Windows

Application Software:

Application software are those software which is used to perform specific task is known as application software for example for documentation we used Microsoft Word Processing, and for calculation we used Microsoft Spreadsheet also known as Excel.

Application software are those software which is developed by any company for public use, or we can say those software which is used to perform common task for people/ user.

Application software are two types these are;

  1. Package Software
  2. Tailored/ Custom Software

Package Software:

Word Processing package:

Word processing software are those software which is used to perform documentation.

Example; MS-Word, NotePad, WordPad etc.

Spreadsheet Package (Excel)

Spreadsheet/ Excel software are those software which is used to perform calculation, auditing, data tabulation, data filtering, data order “Ascending and Descending order” etc.

Example; MS-Excel, MS-Access

Graphics Package

Graphic software are those software which is used to perform graphic task such as designing, logo making, and many more.

Example; Photoshop, Freehand, Corel Draw

Tailored/ Custom Software:

Tailored or custom software are those software which is developed by any company or person for their personal use.

For example software used by any college, or any private or government organization.


Firmware are those software which is stored in computer ROM or Computer Circuitry.

Liveware (Humanware): users and persons related to computer.

History of Computer

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *